Why do women live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live much longer than men today and how is this difference growing in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn’t sufficient to reach an informed conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; However, we’re not sure how strong the relative contribution of each one of these factors is.

In spite of how much amount of weight, we are aware that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men do today however not as in the past, is to do with the fact that a number of important non-biological aspects have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, Glorynote.Com/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%Ac/ like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line , it means that in all nations that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a new boy.1

This chart illustrates that, although women have an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences could be significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men; in Bhutan the difference is less than half one year.



In wealthy countries, the female advantage in longevity was previously smaller.

Let’s look at the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancy at the time of birth in the US during the period 1790-2014. Two distinct points stand out.

First, there’s an upward trend. as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be very small, but it grew substantially in the past century.

If you select the option “Change country’ on the chart, you are able to check that these two points apply to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.

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