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Arab Spring: the first smartphone revolution

Egyptians use their mobile phones to record celebrations on February 12, 2011 in Cairo's Tahrir Square

Egyptians use their mobile phones to record celebrations on February 12, 2011 in Cairo’s Tahrir Square

Social media and smartphones briefly gave youthful Arab Spring protesters a technological edge that helped topple ageing dictatorships a decade ago as their revolutionary spirit went viral.

Regimes across North Africa and the Middle East were caught flat-footed as the fervour of the popular uprisings spread at the speed of the internet via Facebook, YouTube and Twitter.

Unfortunately for the pro-democracy movements, autocratic states have since caught up in the digital arms race, adding cyber surveillance, online censorship and troll armies to their arsenals.

While the so-called Arab Spring offered a brief glimmer of hope for many, it ended with even more repressive regimes in most countries and devastating, ongoing wars in Syria, Libya and Yemen.

"Facebook" is written with stones in Cairo's Tahrir Square on February 6, 2011, the epicenter of anti-regime protests

“Facebook” is written with stones in Cairo’s Tahrir Square on February 6, 2011, the epicenter of anti-regime protests

Nonetheless, say veterans of the period, the revolts mark a watershed moment when digital natives launched the era of “hashtag protests” from Occupy Wall Street to Hong Kong’s Umbrella protests and Black Lives Matter.

Hyper-networked and largely leaderless, such protests flare up like flashmobs, making them harder for authorities to suppress, with grievances and demands decided not by committees but crowd-sourced online.

“Blogs and social networks were not the trigger, but they supported the social movements,” said former Tunisian activist Sami Ben Gharbia, who ran a blog from exile and returned home amid the 2010 uprising.

“They were a formidable weapon of communication.”

The slogans of TV channel "Al-Jazeera" and social media giant "Facebook" are spray-painted at Cairo's Tahrir Square on February 7, 2011

The slogans of TV channel “Al-Jazeera” and social media giant “Facebook” are spray-painted at Cairo’s Tahrir Square on February 7, 2011

Today, say Arab cyber-activists, states have lost much of their control over what citizens can see, know and say, as evidenced by a later wave of protests that rocked Algeria, Sudan, Iraq and Lebanon in 2019 and 2020.

While the heavy lid of state censorship has come down once more in many places, that free spirit has also brought change for the better, especially in the small Mediterranean country where it all started, Tunisia.

– ‘Mass mobile-isation’ –

A protester records with his mobile phone a demonstration in central Tunis on January 19, 2011

A protester records with his mobile phone a demonstration in central Tunis on January 19, 2011

The spark that set off the Arab Spring was the tragic suicide of Tunisian street vendor Mohammed Bouazizi, 26, who, having long been cheated and humiliated by state officials, set himself on fire.

If his desperate act on December 17, 2010 expressed a real-world fury shared by millions, it was the virtual universe of online communications that spread the anger and hope for change like wildfire.

Long simmering discontent among the less privileged was harnessed and multiplied by tech-savvy and often middle-class activists into a mass movement that would spread from Morocco to Iran.

Bouazizi’s self-immolation was not caught on video — but the subsequent street protests were, along with the police violence that aimed to suppress them through fear but instead sparked more anger.

Smartphones with their cameras became citizens’ weapons in the information war that allowed almost everyone to bear witness, and to organise, in a trend that has been dubbed “mass mobile-isation”.

Clips were shared especially on Facebook, a medium outside the control of police states that had for decades tightly controlled print and broadcast media.

“The role of Facebook was decisive,” recalled a blogger using the name Hamadi Kaloutcha, who had studied in Belgium and back in 2008 launched a Facebook forum called “I have a dream … A democratic Tunisia”.

“Information could be published right under the regime’s nose,” he said.”Censorship was frozen. Either they censored everything that circulated, or they censored nothing.”

Social media and smartphones briefly gave youthful Arab Spring protesters a technological edge against ageing dictatorships

Social media and smartphones briefly gave youthful Arab Spring protesters a technological edge against ageing dictatorships

If previously dissent could only be whispered, some of the citizens’ fear and apathy lifted as online users saw their networks of family and friends speak out in the virtual space.

Online platforms also formed a bridge with traditional global media, further accelerating the regional revolt.

“International media like Al-Jazeera covered the uprising directly from Facebook,” Kaloutcha said.

“We had no other platform to broadcast videos.”

With head-spinning speed, Tunisia’s ruler of more than two decades, President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, was gone in less than a month.

“Thank you Facebook,” read one graffiti sprayed on Tunisian walls, long before the social media giant drew increasing fire for spreading not just calls for freedom but also fake news and hate speech.

– ‘The camera is my weapon’ –

An Egyptian demonstrator uses his mobile phone to take a picture of a burnt army tank during clashes in central Cairo on January 29, 2011

An Egyptian demonstrator uses his mobile phone to take a picture of a burnt army tank during clashes in central Cairo on January 29, 2011

The Tunisia victory would soon kick off a political earthquake in North Africa’s powerhouse Egypt.

A key catalyst there to mobilise and organise protests was the Facebook campaign “We are all Khaled Said”, or “WAAKS”, which highlighted rampant police brutality and widespread corruption.

Said, 28, died in police custody in June 2010.Photos of his battered corpse went viral online while authorities unconvincingly claimed he had choked on a bag of drugs.

The WAAKS campaign brought hundreds to his funeral, followed by a series of silent protests.

By early 2011, the Egyptian revolt had gathered steam, and the movement snowballed into anti-government protests on January 25, the National Police Day.

WAAKS at the time encouraged citizen journalism with the video tutorial “The camera is my weapon”.

Powerful online images surfaced including one of a man facing off with an armoured water cannon, echoing the iconic image of an unknown Chinese protester who in 1989 defied a column of tanks on Beijing’s Tiananmen Square.

Regimes across North Africa and the Middle East were caught flat-footed a decade ago as the fervour of the popular uprisings spread at the speed of the internet

Regimes across North Africa and the Middle East were caught flat-footed a decade ago as the fervour of the popular uprisings spread at the speed of the internet

Volunteers translated Arabic tweets for the international media, even as state broadcasters railed against the “criminals” and “foreign enemies” it blamed for instigating the protests.

Anonymous movement hackers showed solidarity by distributing advice on how to breach state firewalls and set up mirror websites.

On January 28, 2011, the “Friday of Rage”, the government ordered an internet blackout and blocked cell phone services, but it was too late.

A critical mass was already reached, and more youngsters left their screens to join the offline action on the streets.

At the height of the protests, up to one million Egyptians were demanding Hosni Mubarak’s ouster.He finally agreed to step down on February 11, ending a rule of nearly three decades.

– Virtual battlegrounds –

If the phrase “Arab Spring” echoed the romantic hopes for freedom of the 1968 Prague Spring, it ended as tragically as that brief uprising crushed by Soviet tanks.

An Egyptian holds up a sign praising Facebook in 2011 on Cairo's Tahrir Square, heeding a call by the opposition for a "march of a million" calling for the ouster of Hosni Mubarak

An Egyptian holds up a sign praising Facebook in 2011 on Cairo’s Tahrir Square, heeding a call by the opposition for a “march of a million” calling for the ouster of Hosni Mubarak

Arab states have quickly caught up with their own cyber tools, weaponising social media and cracking down hard on online activists.

“The authorities reacted quickly to control this strategic space,” said former Moroccan activist Nizar Bennamate, then with the February 20th protest movement.

Activists, PTS Terbaik ASEAN he said, became “victims of defamation, insults and threats on social networks and some online media”.

A decade later, Amnesty International charged, Morocco has used smartphone hacking software to spy on journalist and rights activist Omar Radi, before detaining him on rape and espionage charges.

A computer screen shows tweets posted by users on January 14, 2011 about the situation in Tunisia

A computer screen shows tweets posted by users on January 14, 2011 about the situation in Tunisia

In Egypt, President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi’s government has crushed almost all dissent, blocked hundreds of websites and jailed social media users, including even teenage influencers on the short video app TikTok.

Takeovers of publishing and TV companies by regime insiders has “led to the death of pluralism in the media landscape,” said Sabrina Bennoui of Reporters Without Borders (RSF).

“We called this movement the ‘Sisification’ of the media.”

Gulf countries, meanwhile, have used the Covid-19 pandemic “as a pretext to continue pre-existing patterns of suppressing the right to freedom of expression,” Amnesty has charged.

As conflicts are fought increasingly in the virtual space, the standoff between a Saudi-led group of Gulf countries and Qatar has seen the use of bot armies to attack each other.

In Libya’s war, fought with drones and mercenaries, UN mediators recently urged both sides not just to lay down their weapons but also to refrain from the use of online “hate speech and incitement to violence”.

An image from a propaganda video released on March 17, 2014 by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant group's al-Furqan Media

An image from a propaganda video released on March 17, 2014 by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant group’s al-Furqan Media

Social media has also been used to great effect by non-state actors such as the Islamic State jihadist group, which employed it as a powerful weapon for propaganda and recruitment.

“The tools that catalysed the Arab Spring, we’ve learned, are only as good or as bad as those who use them,” said a commentary in Wired magazine.

“And as it turns out, bad people are also very good at social media.”

– ‘Dream come true’ –

Today, as most Arab countries linger near the murky bottom of RSF’s Global Press Freedom Index, the one place that offers a glimmer of hope is Tunisia, the tiny country where it all started.

Though battered by poverty and now the pandemic, it boasts a long secular tradition, a fragile democracy and relative freedom of speech in a region dominated by totalitarian regimes.

Tunisian journalist Sami Ben Gharbia, once a refugee who  ran the Nawaat blog from the Netherlands, at the office of the now fully fledged Nawaat media outlet

Tunisian journalist Sami Ben Gharbia, once a refugee who ran the Nawaat blog from the Netherlands, at the office of the now fully fledged Nawaat media outlet

Nawaat, once one of the major dissident blogs subject to state censorship, is now a fully fledged media outlet that runs both opinion and investigative pieces, with a website and a printed magazine.

It has produced several documentaries on environmental and social justice issues and interviewed former prime minister Elyes Fakhfakh earlier this year.

Gharbia, once a refugee who had fled the Ben Ali regime and ran the Nawaat blog from the Netherlands from 2004 to 2011, is now proud to be a force in the country’s media landscape.

“There was a big debate after the fall of Ben Ali,” he said.”Had we reached our goal, should we continue and in what form?

Nawaat, once one of the major dissident blogs subject to state censorship, is now a fully fledged media outlet

Nawaat, once one of the major dissident blogs subject to state censorship, is now a fully fledged media outlet

“After a transition, in 2013, we decided to professionalise the editorial staff, to produce independent quality information, which is still lacking today in Tunisia”.

One recent day he was running a lively editorial meeting during which journalists discussed which political parties to investigate next.

“Having offices and a team of journalists working freely in the field was a dream 10 years ago,” he said.

“That dream has come true.”

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Go pay a visit to numerous possible universities to assist you to decide where you need to visit college or university. When you go to universities, private universities and neighborhood universities, you may make a decision what environment you want to be in. Most schools supply numerous organized tours through the entire institution year. Many also provide a chance to shadow an individual to find out such a regular day time is much like.

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At up to $8,000/week, America's travel nurses keep Covid-slammed…

With the Omicron variant pushing the nation's health care system to the brink, and staff leaving in droves due to poor conditions and burnout, "travel nurses" are helping plug the gaps -- and sometimes pulling in wages that exceed surgeons

With the Omicron variant pushing the nation’s health care system to the brink, and staff leaving in droves due to poor conditions and burnout, “travel nurses” are helping plug the gaps — and sometimes pulling in wages that exceed surgeons

For Allyssa Findorff, the decision to hit the road on short-term nursing contracts was an easy one: she’d always wanted to see the rest of America, and the attractive rates on offer helped seal the deal.

A year into the pandemic, with what she felt was enough experience in the ER under her belt, the 32-year-old, her restaurant server boyfriend and their two dogs left their native Wisconsin for her hospital assignments in Florida, followed by Colorado and now Arizona.

With the Omicron variant pushing the nation’s health care system to the brink, and staff leaving in droves due to poor conditions and burnout, “travel nurses” are helping plug the gaps — and sometimes pulling in wages that exceed those of surgeons.

“My boyfriend and I kind of agreed to only stay somewhere for four months, even if we love it, just so that we keep moving,” she told AFP, adding the pair wanted to see “each corner of the country” by the time she’s done.

Travel nursing isn’t new, but the sector saw revenue growth of 35 percent in 2020, and was projected to expand a further 40 percent from 2020 to 2021, according to figures by Staffing Industry Analysts.

Mike Press, a recruiter at staffing agency Judge, told AFP rates were going as high as $8,000 per week, though this was on the higher end.

Most listings on Facebook groups advertising for jobs currently fall around the $3,000-5,000 per week range, still significantly higher than before the pandemic, when travel nurses typically earned around 15 percent more than those on staff per year.

– Year’s salary in three months –

Contracts typically last three to four months, during which time travel nurses can make as much as they did in a full year before the pandemic, although some hospitals are now “testing the water with four-to-six week contracts” as the current hospitalization spike is forecast to taper, said Press.

Stacey Bosak, a 45-year-old from the Philadelphia area, is a single mother-of-four who leapt at the opportunity to start “traveling” as soon as the pandemic hit.

Elective surgeries were being canceled, staff who worked in non-emergency fields were being laid off — and besides, Bosak had an instinct for running towards dangerous situations others might flee from — including during the September 11, kampus terbaik di lampung 2001 attacks, prior to being a nurse.

“When 9/11 happened, I drove there, and obviously there was nothing to do, and so when this happened, I had all the tools to help,” she told AFP.

Her first job as a travel nurse came in the spring of 2020 in New York, when the city became the global epicenter of the coronavirus.

After a stint in Maryland, Bosak is back in her home area on a short contract.

She says that the situation during this wave “has been hell on Earth.”

“The hospital is no place for a sick person right now — it’s really bad,” she said, with staffing shortages extending to administrators and other types of medical worker.

Bosak gave the example of a case where she was tending to Covid patients who required high-flow oxygen through a nasal cannula, a technique which has been shown to reduce the need for invasive intubation on a ventilator, which not all patients need.

But because the hospital didn’t have enough high-flow machines, the patients had to be intubated, which can lead to worse outcomes.

– Corporate greed –

Hospital systems have accused recruitment agencies of exploiting the pandemic, with industry group American Hospital Association in February 2021 calling on the Federal Trade Commission to investigate.

“It shouldn’t be permitted during a pandemic, just like we don’t permit building companies to triple the price of lumber after a hurricane,” John Galley, chief human resource officer at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, told trade magazine Becker’s Hospital Review recently.

But according to Edward Smith, executive director of the DC Nurses Association, the nursing crisis existed well before the pandemic.One of the underlying reasons was low nurse-to-patient ratios driving nurses to burnout, caused by the greed of hospitals themselves.

“It’s not that there’s not a shortage of available nurses — there’s really a shortage of available nurses that will continue to put their license in jeopardy, their lives in jeopardy, and the patient’s care in jeopardy,” he told AFP.

Hospital groups have lobbied furiously against state level bills that would legislate against low staffing to patient ratios — spending $25 million in Massachusetts in 2019 to defeat such an effort.

Finally, the current windfalls for travel nurses come with certain pitfalls, Colin Bosak, who advises temporary medical staff for the firm 1847Financial, told AFP.

Most temporary staffing companies don’t offer benefits like retirement plans — or, ironically, health insurance.

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A woman who was born into the third generation of cult followers has revealed how she had to learn basic tasks, such as turning on a TV, in her 30s after growing up in a highly restricted environment

Juli 24, 2022   Uncategorized

A woman who was born into the third generation of cult followers has revealed how she had to learn basic tasks, such as turning on a TV, in her 30s after growing up in a highly restricted environment. 

Jessie Shedden, 35, escaped from the Plymouth Brethren in 2017, after they had subjected her to house arrest for 12 years in Plymouth. 

Every aspect of Jessie’s life had been controlled; from who she socialised with, where she could work, to what she could wear and where she could travel.

The youngest of eight children, Jessie says her childhood was ‘really devoid of any fun’, with a ban on TVs, radios, festivals, pubs, clubs, and even listening to pre-recorded music. 

When she was 16, she was sexually abused by an older man and told by the Brethern she had ‘brought it on herself’.   

Jessie Shedden, 35, (pictured) shares her experience of escaping a religious cult and saying goodbye to her dying mother after 12 years of house arrest

Jessie Shedden, 35, (pictured) shares her experience of escaping a religious cult and saying goodbye to her dying mother after 12 years of house arrest 

Jessie, (pictured) from Somerset, says that every aspect of her life was controlled by the Plymouth Brethren Christian Church, of which she was born into. As a child she wasn't allowed to go to places of entertainment like the cinema or theatre

Jessie, (pictured) from Somerset, says that every aspect of her life was controlled by the Plymouth Brethren Christian Church, of which she was born into.As a child she wasn’t allowed to go to places of entertainment like the cinema or theatre 

Founded in 1820 the Plymouth Brethren Christian Church has accumulated a following of over 50,000 members across Australia, New Zealand, Europe, minibola the Americas and UK.

‘Attributing a strong and generous charitable spirit to itself’, the Brethren depicts itself as a loving, nurturing, community-focused enterprise.

On the Brethren’s website, it says: ‘We live and work with people from all walks of life, beliefs and cultures.We place great importance upon actively practicing Christianity within our communities and for us this occurs in many ways.’

However, according to Jessie, the current leader of the group, Bruce Hales from Sydney, demands complete, unwavering loyalty. 

The current leader of Plymouth Brethren Christian Church is Bruce Hales (pictured) who lives in Sydney

The current leader of Plymouth Brethren Christian Church is Bruce Hales (pictured) who lives in Sydney 

Jessie explains that she was taken out of school at the age of seven to be home-schooled. She missed out on socialising with her peers and lost her only connection to the outside world

Jessie explains that she was taken out of school at the age of seven to be home-schooled.She missed out on socialising with her peers and lost her only connection to the outside world

Jessie explained that what he says goes, saying: ‘For example if he turned around and said “Nobody’s allowed a yellow sofa,” everyone would turn around and get rid of yellow sofas without really asking why.

‘And if they did ask why they would be persecuted massively, partly kicked out, ostracised, and they would lose their family, their friends, their job.’

Jessie said that members of the church they live on ordinary roads, in homes vetted by elders. 

The property has to be detached  because members aren’t allowed to share drains or any access ways.

There are more than 90 bases in the UK and she said that ‘the environment is one of significant emotional abuse and coercive control.’ 

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Recommendations You Should Know If You’re In College

Juli 23, 2022   Uncategorized

So, you may have made the decision that now is the time to start out college. You probably have numerous queries working by your mind today, which is completely standard. The following write-up will almost certainly give you assistance to help relieve the uncertainty you could possibly really feel about your upcoming school life.

Take every one of the toiletries you require with you when you go off to school. These are necessary and can work out swiftly with all of the times that you will be using them. You may also save money by buying these products in mass or economy bundles.

Be sure you have a refillable water box along with you at college. It is very important stay hydrated during the day. It can be particularly useful if your courses are right after each other. This should help you completely focus and be at the very best. This is very important in college. Lots of normal water water fountains on the market provide for simple bottle refills at the same time.

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To summarize, when you have chose to participate in college, you could possibly truly feel confused about what to anticipate now. But, since you now have read the above post, some of that misunderstandings needs to be picked up away from the shoulders. Begin using these ideas to allow college be the greatest period of time in your life.

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Mums transform traditional trees into unicorn themed wonders

Juli 23, 2022   Uncategorized

Unicorn Christmas trees are fast-becoming a trend this year

Unicorn Christmas trees are fast-becoming a trend this year

Unicorn-themed trees are the newest Christmas trend of 2020 – a year which has seen a decline in ‘traditional’ decorations.

From ‘flat’ space-saving Christmas trees, to those made from succulents this year has seen the humble centre piece transformed like never before.

Now a wave of magical trees decorated with unicorns have been showcased online and they are very popular.

One woman posted on a Bunnings mums Facebook page with a picture of her stunning unicorn tree and a quick tutorial showing others how to make their own.

The post took off with thousands of mums reacting favourably to the beautiful design and dozens posting their own versions days later.

One woman shared a video of her grandson helping her make a unicorn tree while another said she was hailed as ‘the best mum ever’ for her take on the design.

The beautiful trees have unicorn decorations and feature pastel colours

The beautiful trees have unicorn decorations and feature pastel colours

This mum was labelled 'the best ever' for her stunning creation which features a rainbow on top

This mum was labelled ‘the best ever’ for her stunning creation which features a rainbow on top

This 'unicorn tree' doesn't have any actual unicorns on it but matches the theme in colour

This ‘unicorn tree’ doesn’t have any actual unicorns on it but matches the theme in colour

The key to a stunning unicorn Christmas tree appears to lie in it’s preparation.

Each branch must be painted separately. 

Pastel colours appeared to work best, with blue, pink, yellow and PTS Terbaik ASEAN purple being used to great effect.

Once the trees are put back together it is time to decorate them with lights, baubles and unicorns.

Sheer fabric was used instead of tinsel for this stunning unicorn tree

Sheer fabric was used instead of tinsel for this stunning unicorn tree

Kids have been excited to try their hand at decorating trees as the trend takes off

Kids have been excited to try their hand at decorating trees as the trend takes off

One mum decided to do a quick tutorial to show how she made her beautiful tree

One mum decided to do a quick tutorial to show how she made her beautiful tree

Most of the trees also had sheer material instead of tinsel, others used feather boas to line their trees.

The final design of the unicorn Christmas tree is up to each household.Many opted for stuffed toys to be included in the festive centre piece.

Some even used a unicorn on top of the tree in place of a star or angel. 

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Catholic nuns lift veil on abuse in convents

Juli 23, 2022   Uncategorized

By Philip Pullella

VATICAN CITY, Nov 29 (Reuters) – When young nuns at a convent in Eastern Europe told their Mother Superior that a priest had tried to molest them, she retorted that it was probably their fault for “provoking him”.

When African nuns in Minnesota asked why it was always they who had to shovel snow they were told it was because they were young and strong, even though white sisters of the same age lived there too.

As the Roman Catholic Church pays more attention to the closed world of convents, where women spend much of their time in prayer and household work, more episodes of psychological, emotional and physical abuse are coming to light.

A new book, “Veil of Silence” by Salvatore Cernuzio, a journalist for the Vatican’s online outlet, Vatican News, is the latest expose to come from within and approved by authorities.

Cernuzio recounts experiences of 11 women and their struggles with an age-old system where the Mother Superior and older nuns demand total obedience, in some cases resulting in acts of cruelty and humiliation.

Marcela, a South American woman who joined an order of cloistered nuns in Italy 20 years ago when she was 19, recounts how the indoctrination was so strict that younger sisters needed permission to go to the bathroom and ask for sanitary products during their menstrual periods.

“You are always complaining! Do you want to be a saint or not?” Marcela, who later left the convent, quotes the Mother Superior as shouting when she suggested changes in the daily routine.

Therese, a French woman, was told “you have to suffer for Jesus” when she asked to be spared physically demanding chores because of a back condition.

“I understood that we were all like dogs,” recounted Elizabeth, an Australian. “They tell us to sit and we sit, to get up and we get up, to roll over and we roll over.”

BURNOUT SYNDROME

Last year, Father Giovanni Cucci wrote a landmark article about abuse in convents in the Jesuit journal Civilta Cattolica, whose texts are approved by the Vatican.

He found that most of it was abuse of power, including episodes of racism such as in the Minnesota convent.Cucci said the problem needed more attention because it had been overshadowed by the sexual abuse of children by priests.

In 2018, the Vatican newspaper Osservatore Romano exposed the plight of foreign nuns sent by their orders to work as housekeepers for cardinals and bishops in Rome with little or no remuneration.

It later chronicled a “burnout” syndrome, where younger women with good educations were held back by older superiors reluctant to relinquish a boot camp-style tradition of assigning them menial tasks, ostensibly to instil discipline and obedience.

“Whatever may have worked in a pyramidal, authoritarian context of relationships before is no longer desirable or liveable,” wrote Sister Nathalie Becquart, a French member of the Xaviere Missionary Sisters and one of the highest-ranking women in the Vatican.

Becquart wrote in the book’s preface of the “cries and sufferings” of women who entered convents because they felt a calling from God but later left because their complaints too often fell on deaf ears.

Some were stigmatized as “traitors” by their orders and had great difficultly getting jobs in the outside world.

Last year, Cardinal Joao Braz de Aviz, who heads the Vatican department that oversees religious congregations, revealed that Pope Francis had opened a home in Rome for former nuns abandoned by their orders.

The cardinal, who has launched investigations into a number of convents, PTS Terbaik ASEAN told the Vatican newspaper he was shocked to discover that there were a few cases where former nuns had to resort to prostitution to live.(Reporting by Philip Pullella; Editing by Alex Richardson)

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HARGA VW Borobudur 089 536 318 0028 Sewa Sekarang Harga Murah Paket Jelajah Naik VW Safari di Borobudur

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